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New England

c.1820s — Eastern Seaboard of the United States


About the year 1609, a number of persons in England who declared themselves to be Dissenters from the Established Church determined to remove to Holland. They disposed of their estates, chartered a vessel and purposed to embark at Boston in Lincolnshire. — But the captain of the vessel, vexed them with unnecessary delays and secretly informed the magistrates of their design. — The fugitives went on board at night but they had scarcely arrived when they were surrounded by officers who set them on shore robbed them of their most valuable effects, and committed them to prison. The magistrates finally showed them some favour and they were set at Liberty.

Not long after, a Dutch captain agreed to convey them to Holland, and as they wished to embark secretly he proposed to take them on board on the coast at some distance from Hull. For this purpose he came to the place and brought his vessel as near the shore as possible where there was no village or inhabitants.

The women and children were sent thither in a small boat, and as they were very impatient they arrived the day before the ship, They went into a small cove for shelter, and when the ship came their boat was aground. — The men had travelled hither by land. — and when the Dutch captain perceived them he sent his boat on shore for them. The first boat full reached the ship in safety and which they were preparing to go on shore a second time, the descried a body of soldiers which had been sent to apprehend them.

The Dutch captain instantly sailed for Holland, leaving the remainder of these unhappy persons to the mercy of their persecutors. — Those on board the ship suffered great hardships. They were driven far out of their course by terrible storms, narrowly escaped shipwreck on the coast of Norway, and for seven days they saw neither sun, moon, or stars. When they arrived in Holland the people came in crowds to the shore to congratulate them on their deliverance. Those who were left in England, perceiving that they were in danger of being apprehended attempted to flee, but they were nearly all taken. The men were unwilling to desert the women in their distress for they gave way to the most piteous lamentations when they saw their husbands carried away from them in the ship. They beheld the forlorn condition of themselves and their little ones.

They were taken by the soldiers and committed to prison but the magistrates knew not what to do with them no crime could be alleged against them — and they were transferred from one prison to another. No one wishing to be burdened with them  & they had no home. — At last, finding that they were a great annoyance, and tired with tormenting them, they suffered the miserable remnant to rejoin their friends in Holland.

They resided ten or twelve years in that country, and their deportment was such that they were much esteemed. Their minister, Mr. John Robinson was a learned and pious Divine, and the theological controversists of that day often referred their disputes to him. —

But the unanimity of the society was at last disturbed, disputes arose among themselves, and they divided into two Congregations. One of these with Mr. Robinson as their [missing word] determined to remove to America. Several years were occupied with preparations and obtaining a grant of land from the Dutch on the river Hudson.

In 1620 one half of the congregation went from Holland to England, where two ships had been engaged to transport them to America. They were unfortunate at the commencement of the voyage for they were retarded by contrary winds and the ship sprang a leak which compelled them to return to England to refit. and one of the ships with her passengers was left behind. — These circumstances prevented them from reaching the coast of America until the beginning of November, and there again meeting with contrary winds they were compelled to enter the harbour of Cape Cod, where they remained five weeks. Some of the most enterprising, ventured to explore the coast in the shallop and with the hope of finding a suitable place for a settlement, as the Master of the ship wished to proceed further. — A violent storm drove them into a cove, and they anchored under an island now called Clarke’s Island. — As soon as the storm abated they went on shore, where they found several fields of Indian corn, and pure water. — Judging the lands to be fertile, they determined to settle here and on returning to the ship, the Master proceeded directly to this place, and the whole company landed the 15th of December. — The place where they landed is still known. The town is Plymouth, the cove Plymouth cove. Their number amounted to 101.

During the voyage they had entered into articles of agreement, to preserve subordination, and they chose as Governor Mr. John Carver. It was scarcely possible for them to erect suitable comfortable habitations, to shelter so numerous a company before the cold came on, neither were they able to procure provisions, so that this winter proved a season of misery and suffering and fifty perished from cold hunger and other privations. The Colony of Plymouth increased slowly, 35 of their brethren joined them the second year and some others were added, yet as the lands were all held in common and all the produce of their labour thrown into the joint stock. — continual divisions arose, agriculture was neglected, and during several of the first years they were compelled for months together to subsist upon fish. Cornbread and water was a great luxury.

In 1627, Mr. Endicot with several others purchased lands of the Plymouth Company — and the same year arrived at Naumkeag, now Salem with a company of Planters. — In 1629 they had erected 8 dwellings houses and there were about 100 persons comfortably settled. In 1630 17 ships arrived in Massachusetts Bay having on board 1500 passengers — among them were many persons of note. — Mr Winthrop was chosen Governor and a constitution framed previous to their landing.

When they came to Salem they found the planters in a weak and sickly state and there was not sufficient corn  for their subsistence more than a fortnight. This was the month of June and they must prepare a shelter and food for the ensuring winter — They were disheartened at the wretched prospect, dismay seized them and many were laid in the graves before the ensuing autumn — Among these now was more lamented than the lady Arabella Johnston, daughter of the Earl of Lincoln, who, says Hubbard, came from a paradise of plenty and pleasure in the family of a noble Earl into the wilderness of wants. Mr. Johnston here husband was much esteemed for his learning and piety, his grief for her loss was so great that he survived but a short time. —

These losses were severely felt.

The principal persons explored the country in various directions in search of suitable places for settlements and the peninsula now known as Boston, offering facilities which few other [missing words?] was pitched upon as their future residence. Some huts were hastily constructed for their accommodation. Yet they were miserably lodged, and in consequence many perished miserably before spring. — Their food consisted principally of shell fish and ground nuts and even those whose wealth seem to entitle them to better fare were obliged to submit to this scanty allowance. Early in February their necessities were in some measure relieved by the arrival of a vessel from England which brought supplies, and the next season a crop of Indian corn relieved them secured them from all dread of starving. —

The first legislative assembly was held at Charlestown 1632. In 1632 they were joined by the Revs. Mr. Cotton, Hooker and Stone. — Mr Cotton became the pastor of the church at Boston, and Mr Stone that of Newtown or Cambridge.

At an early period religious dissentions arose among the colony. — owing to the nonconformity of Mr. Roger Williams to the doctrines and usages of the Puritans. (he refused to join in communion with them because they would not make a public declaration of their penitence for having been formerly members of the Church of England. For this and for the promulgation of many opinions in which he differed considerably from them, he was banished and removed to providence where he formed a settlement. This was the founding of R.I.

In the course of three or four years considerable additions were made to the colony by the arrival of emigrants from England.

Mr. Cotton the minister of Boston had great influence with the colonists, and perhaps exercised this influence it in an arbitrary manner — which occasioned considerable disgust and several persons with Mr. Hooker at their head determined to remove to some other place as fast was appointed and the matter was laid before a general council or rather the legislature. With considerable difficulty they obtained permission to remove and left Cambridge in 1638, shaping their course to the Connecticut river. They were in number about 100 persons — and on foot set off to travel through the tractless wilderness — Many of these were delicate females, and some even small children were among them. who seemed to quite Yet this hideous journey, through swamps and over mountains, and rivers was [tractation] with fortitude and they reached Hartford in safety where they established themselves. During the first winter they suffered much from scarcity of provisions and many of the settlers removed the mouth of the river where a fort had been erected. This was the first settlement of Connecticut.

About the same time, further disturbances were occasioned, in consequence of some subtleties in religion . . .

It may be interesting to learn the fate of a woman, who made some noise in her time — She resided in Rhode Island until the death of her husband 1642 when she removed south.

. . . introduced by Mrs Ann Hutchinson, a woman of some talents and at first much respected in the colony. She held meetings in her house where she presided and preached. Many persons [attracted? attended?] and she was encouraged by her Brother-in-law Mr. Wheelwright an eminent and respectable Clergyman. Her meetings were much esteemed at first and subsequently she chose to differ from the Church at Boston, withdrew herself altogether form public worship and set up a purer and more holy worship in her own family. Her opinions were deemed heretical, she was arraigned and brought before the Church for trial. An account of the trial has been preserved, which strongly evinces the spirit of the age. her answers were sufficiently pertinent and she defended herself adroitly. — Yet she was banished and retired to Block Island with her family. —

After her banishment religious animosities were carried to a great height, and Mr Wheelwright (the person mentioned above) was obliged to have [?] [leave?] the colony he went to N Hampshire and commenced a settlement at Exeter on the river Piscataqua.

Previous to this, some settlements had been made — Strawberry Bank now Portsmouth had been laid out by Mr. Chadbourne and others and 30 or 40 persons were settled here. — When Mr. Wheelwright arrived they saw the necessity of union and an instrument was drawn up, but which they formed themselves into a body politic and bound themselves to submit to laws.

But the people of Massachusetts, having examined their patent determined that they had a claim to all the lands south of the most northerly point of the Merrimack — and that the settlements of the Piscataqua Bay came within their jurisdiction. The settlers submitted to this decision and new Hampshire was considered part of Massachusetts for the ensuing 40 years. — So this was owing in a great measure, says Hutchinson, its flourishing state. — Mr. Wheelwright removed to Maine in 1637, several emigrants arrived from England. The principal among them were Mr. Hopkins afterwards Governor of Connecticut, Mr. Eaton and Mr. Davenport who had been a preacher of considerable eminence in London. As he differed considerably from the established church he was obliged to flee, and came away privately. The colonists of Massachusetts wished these persons to settle among them, but as they found they could not have as much influence as they wished, they refused, and learning that there was a fine harbour at Quinipack, and that it was well situated for trade, they went thither, and founded the town of New Haven. New Haven was a distinct colony until 1665 when it was united to Connecticut.

About the year 1609, a number of persons in England who declared themselves Dissenters from the Established Church attempted to remove to Holland. They chartered a vessel, which was to be the master of which agreed to receive them on board at Boston in Lincolnshire, but who after causing them considerable delay took them they went on board secretly by night. But the master of the ship, informed against them, and they were boarded by the officers, who put set them on shore and plundered them of all their effects, and committed them to prison. The magistrates treated them kindly, and released them. Some time after a Dutch Captain agreed to convey them to Holland, and was to receive them on board near Hull, for this purpose he brought his vessel very near the shore, where there was no village or Inhabitants, the women and children even sent to this place in a boat, and as they were very impatient they arrived the day before the ship. They entered a small cove and when the ship came, their boat was aground, the men had travelled hither by land and and the Dutch Captain perceiving them, sent his boat ashore for them While they were preparing to go for a  boat full him Which although with  The first boat full reached the ship in safety, but while they were preparing to go ashore a second time, they descried a company of body of force soldiers, which had been sent to apprehend them. The Dutch Captain instantly hoisted sail, and sailed for Holland leaving the remainder of these unhappy persons to the mercy of their persecutors, and by whose they were those on board the ship suffered great hardships, they were driven far out of their course and narrowly escaped by terrible storms, and narrowly escaped shipwreck upon the coast of Norway, and for fourteen days they saw neither sun, moon or stars. When they arrived at in Holland the people came flocking to the shore to congratulate them upon their deliverance.

Those who were left upon the English shore on the shore in England, seeing that they were in danger of being apprehended, attempted to flee, but they were nearly all taken, especially the women and children many of the men they being were unwilling to desert the women in their distress for they wept and intreated bewailed most piteously, some few saw their husbands leaving them in the ship, and others were fearful of perishing together with their little ones. They were all taken by the soldiers, and committed to prison. but the magistrates knew not what to do with them acted as no crime would be alleged against them and they were transferred from one town prison to another, no one wishing to be burdened with them. At last, after they and they had no homes or places to which they could go. At last, when they were quite weary with them persecuting these poor forlorn creatures, they suffered them to go to join their companions in Holland.

They resided ten or twelve years in Holland, and their deportment conduct was such as to that they were much respected, and their minister, Mr. John Robinson, was a learned and pious Divine, and he entered little into the theological disputes of that Day. Yet the controversists often referred their disputes to him.

But their unanimity was at last disturbed, and by disputes among themselves, and they divided into two congregations. One of these with Mr. Robinson at as their pastor determined to remove to America. Several years were occupied with preparation and in obtaining a grant of land from the Dutch, on the river Hudson. In 1620 one half of the congregation embarked went from Holland to England, where two ships had been engaged to transport them to America, they were unfortunate at the commencement of the voyage, for they were retarded by contrary winds and the ship sprung a leak, which forced them to return to England to refit — and one of the ships with her passengers was left behind. These circumstances retarded them so much prevented them from reaching the coast of America until the beginning of November. and then again meeting with contrary winds they were forced to enter the harbour of Cape Cod. —  where they remained five weeks. They are Some of the most enterprising traversed the, coasted along the shore with the shallop and endeavoured to find a suitable place where they might settle, as the Master of the ship was unwilling to proceed further. — A violent storm drove them into [illegible word struck ] a cove and they anchored under an island, now called Clarkes Island. — As soon as the storm was over they went on shore, where they found good water for and on further examination  discovered some Indian corn fields. Judging from this that the lands were fertile, they [illegible strike] determined to settle here, and having returned to the ship, the Master proceeded directly to this place, and they were all landed on the 16 of December. The The place where they landed is still known, the town was called Plymouth and the cove Plymouth cove. Their number amounted to about 101. — During the voyage they had entered into articles of agreement, in order to preserve [?] subordination among them, and they appointed Mr. John Carver their Governor. This they It was scarcely possible for them to erect suitable comfortable habitations for so to shelter so numerous a company before the piercing cold would came on, and neither could were they able to procure provisions, so that this winter proved  a season of misery and suffering, about fifty perished of cold and hunger and other privations.

During the first three years, all the lands were all held in common and the people received this all the produce of the labour was thrown into the common stock. This prevented the colony from flourishing. continual divisions arose. and they were finally obliged to assign each family a certain portion of land. — The settlers at Plymouth had chosen a barren tract of land, and they hoped as they made several attempts to establish a commercial intercourse with the natives, agriculture was neglected and during many of the first years the settlers were and sometimes compelled to subsist upon fish for months together — and with many of them a good meal of Indian corn was thought a great luxury. — The colony of Plymouth increased slowly. 35 of their brethren joined them the second year. and at different periods some others were added to the company, yet when Mr. Endicott arrived at Salem Massachusetts Bay in 1627 1622 they had made no attempts to settle make new settlements extend the settlements.

Mr. Endicot with several others purchased a tract of land of the Plymouth Company, and arose brought he brought over planters and servants, and in 1629 there were at Naumkeag 100 persons and 8 comfortable dwelling houses. In 1630, seventeen ships arrived in Massachusetts Bay, having on board 1500 passengers. who belonged to the colony of Mr. E. The Arabella had on board Mr. Winthrop, who was appointed Governor, together with many persons of quality who had embarked with determined to settle in America. Among these were was the Lady Arabella Johnston. married to daughter of the Earl of Lincoln and married to Mr. Johnston a minister.

When they arrived at Salem, they found a colony in drooping condition. There was not sufficient corn for their subsistence, more than a fortnight — and the planters were in a weak and sickly state, and many had died. This was the month of June and they must prepare shelter and food for the ensuring winter. Many were disheartened at the discouraging prospect, and sickness coming among them, the many were laid in the graves before the autumn. Among those, none was more lamented than the lady Arabella Johnston, who says Hubbard had “came from a paradise of plenty and pleasure in the family of a noble Earl into a wilderness of wants, and although celebrated for many virtues, yet was not able to encounter the adversity she was surrounded with, and in about a month after her arrival she ended her days at Salem, where she first arrived.” Mr. Johnston her husband, was much esteemed for his learning and piety. his grief at her loss was so great that he survived but a short time, Before December more than two hundred persons died, Those among them were some persons of note. These losses were deeply felt and deplored. The principal persons explored the country in various directions in order to find suitable places for settlements., The peninsula of Boston, seemed to offer facilities which few other places possessed and they pitched upon it as their future residence. Many families had taken up their residence in different parts of the coast. and the [illegible strike] site of several towns had been determined. Some huts were erected for the accommodation of these emigrants before winter commenced. but the greater . . .

During the first years of the settlement the colonists subsisted principally upon Indian bread and water.

. . .  part were miserably lodged, and they contracted diseases which destroyed great numbers before spring. They were compelled to feed upon shell fish and ground nuts, and even those, whose wealth might seem to entitle them to better fare, were obliged to submit to this scanty allowance. Early in February their necessities were in some measure relieved, by the arrival of a vessel from England, [illegible strike] which brought supplies. and the next season, they a crop of Indian corn secured them from all dread of starving. —

The first legislative assembly was held at Boston Charlestown 1632. In 1633 they were joined by Mr. Cotton, Hooker and Stone. Mr Cotton became the pastor of the church at Boston, and Mr Stone that of New-town or Cambridge, and mr. Hooker at Hartford. In 1634 considerable disturbances arose in the colony, owing to the non-conformity of Mr. Roger Williams to the doctrines and usages of the Church, and he refused to join in communion with them for because they would not make a public declaration of their penitence for having formerly been members of the Church of England, For these and for many other opinions in which he differed considerably from them he was banished and removed to Providence, where he commenced a settlement.

In the year 1635 considerable additions were made to the colony of Massachusetts by the arrival of a number of Emigrants from England, among whom whom [sic] were several persons of note. Mr. Cotton the minister at Boston had great influence with the colonists, and perhaps exercised this power in rather an arbitrary manner — which occasioned considerable disquiet, and several persons with Mr. Hooker at their head determined to remove to some other place. Although the early settlers of Massachusetts professed to abolish rank, and desired to establish a settlement where there should be perfect equality, yet the leading men among them exercised an authority little compatible with their professions. — During this early period they were governed by the they annually elected a Governor, and he several persons called assistants, and Mr. Winthrop continued Governor until 1634 — Considerable disturbances and controversies took place in consequence of the desire of Mr. Hooker and others to remove to Boston and form another settlement, and a fast was ordained appointed, and the matter was laid before the Legislature. They obtained permission, yet with difficulty. In the year 1636 they left Cambridge, and about 100 persons set off to travel through the woods on foot to Connecticut [illegible] through a tractless wilderness. Many of these were delicate females, and some small children, who seemed to quite unfit to encounter this hideous journey, through swamps, over mountains, and across several rivers of no inconsiderable magnitude. Mr. Hooker and his congregation fixed themselves at Wethersfield a little before Hartford. During the first winter they suffered much from scarcity of provisions, and many of the settlers were scattered up and and emigrated towards the mouth of the river, where a fort had been erected by Lord [Pordlay and deal?].

The same year the 1636 disputes with Mrs. Hutchinson arose arose, in consequence of some subtleties, and in religion which were introduced by Mrs Ann Hutchinson, a woman of some talents, and preach and at first much esteemed in the colony. She held meetings at her house, in which where she presided and preached.

Sixty or eighty women usually attended Mrs. Hutchinson’s lectures, and she was encouraged by her brother in law Mr. Wheelwright an eminent and respectable clergyman. Her lectures were in great esteem at first, but she forsook public worship and set up a more holy worship in her own home — which gave much [from next page:] disturbance “and says Hutchinson she made converts of most of the Church of Boston.” Sir Henry Vane who was Governor for . . . and as She chose to differ from the church then established at Boston, her her opinions were diffused and were deemed heretical and she was arraigned, & brought before the ministers and Deacons. used An [illegible] account of her trial has been preserved, which strongly evinces the taste of the times spirit of the age. her answers were sufficiently pertinent, and she defended herself adroitly, yet she was banished and retired to Rhode I. with her family. In 1642 It may not be uninteresting to learn of the fate of a person who made some noise in her time. She resided in Rhode I — until the death of her husband, 1642 when she removed to south beyond New Haven and was killed by the Indians.

The Indians commenced hostilities at an early period, yet their aggressions were not very serious, they being kept in awe by the fire arms of the English, of which they had not yet learned to use. In 1636 a treaty was made with the Narragansets a tribe living in the in which they agree to assist the English against their mortal enemies the Pequots. and in 1637 the colonies of Massachusetts Plymouth and Connecticut determined on uniting to extirpate the Pequots. This war was caused by the murder of a Mr. John Oldham, by the Pequots, and who refused to give up the murderers of the English.] Guided by the Narragansets the English forces under the command of Captain Underhill proceeded to the Indian fort in the south part of RI in Rhode Island, where they came upon the Indians during which they were [observing?] a festival surprised them by night, set fire to the Wigwams, and destroyed great numbers. The remainder of the Pequots retired to a swamp, where some time after they were surrounded by the English, [illegible word] and either shot or taken prisoners. The Tribe of the Pequots was entirely destroyed and extirpated. The conduct of the colonists during this war, can neither be justified by the [illegible] of humanity or good policy, and is a reproach to them.

After the banishment of Mrs. Hutchinson, the religious dissentions were carried to a great height, and Mr. Wheelwright here [illegible] was obliged to leave the colony, he went to New Hampshire, and commenced a settlement at Exeter this was the common on the river Piscataqua.

Previous to this, some attempts had been made to form settlements on the Piscataqua Bay, and some grants of land had been made at as early as 1632. Strawberry Bank, since called Portsmouth, was laid out as early as 1631 by Mr. Chadbourne and others. and there were 30 or 40 persons were settled here. — When Mr. Wheelwright came to Exeter they saw the necessity of union and an instrument was drawn up by which they formed themselves into a body politic, and binding themselves to submit to the laws.

But the Massachusetts people having enquired into examined their patent determined that they possessed had a claim to all the lands north south of the most northerly point of the Merrimack river, and that the settlements on Piscataqua bay came within their jurisdiction. —  The settlers submitted to this discussion, and New Hampshire was considered as a part of Massachusetts. for 40 years afterwards. So this was owing in a great measure, says Hutchinson, the its flourishing state of New Hampshire that state.— Mr. Wheelwright removed to Maine.

In 1637, two vessels arrived from England with passengers Emigrants. The principal of these were Mr. Eaton and Mr. Hopkins who was afterwards Governor of Connecticut, and Mr. Davenport who had been a preacher of considerable eminence in London, As he differed from the established church, he was obliged to abscond, and came off privately.— The colonists of Massachusetts wished these persons to settle among them, but as they found they could not be the leading men, they refused, and learning that there was a fine harbour at Quinipiack and that it was well situated for trade, they went thither and founded the town now known as New Haven. The towns in the vicinity of New were settled about the same time. New Haven was a distinct colony and continued so for many years until 1665, when they were united to Connecticut.

During the following years little occurred to disturb the tranquility of the colonists except occasional religious disputes, and some attempts of the Indians Narragansets (Indians) to create a disturbance which were frustrated. On this occasion 1643 was formed the first league between the Colonies of Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island for their mutual defense.

In 1649 died Mr. Winthrop, who may well be called the Father of New England. He expended a plentiful Estate in promoting the welfare of the Colonists, and He left a volume containing a minute account of the t transactions of the Colony most remarkable events that transpired. It has since been published under the title of Winthrop’s Journal” and is well worthy the attention of the curious. Some laws were made about this time to retrain all persons and especially Clergymen from wearing long hair. and H tobacco coming into use, was it the practice of smoking was much discour[teranned?] and it was called a grievous sin, yet some of the Clergy acquired the habit, and it soon became common.

About the year 1656 — a number of persons arrived in the Colony — who were actuated  by a most extraordinary spirit of fanaticism, it and who styled themselves Quakers, yet their conduct bears little relation to the usual deportment of that respectable Sect. Some of them were brought before the court of assistants, and l as their replies were very contemptuous they were sent to prison. In passing to Church the Governor was reviled by them, and letters filled with the most ridiculous expressions were sent to him, these persons were so troublesome that they were banished. A law was passed at the next session of the legislature, by which al Quakers were forbidden to come within the precincts of the Colony. — But as is usual on such occasions the Quakers increased and committed some extravagances that are seem unaccountable. — At Boston two persons went about the streets crying that the Lord was coming with fire and sword. Thomas Newhouse went into the meetinghouse [at Boston]) with a couple of glass bottles in his hands, and in presence of the congregation dashed them to pieces, crying at the same time “This will the Lord break you in pieces. — A person in one of the country towns, attempted to sacrifice his son in imitation of Abraham — The cries of the child happily, drew on attracted the attention of the neighbors and the scheme was frustrated.

These unfortunate persons were persecuted by the Colonists with unrelenting severity, and were either executed or banished a circumstance that may be considered as a reproach to those who were concerned in it. Yet toleration was unknown among the colonists, and considered up was thought to be contrary to the true interests of the church.

Hitherto the colonists had lived on friendly terms with the Indians, except some. . .

Yet in 1672 a war broke out with them called Philip’s War. this was the first general war with the Indians, and many of them having lived so long on friendly terms with the English were unwilling to join with Philip. This war had long been meditated by the Indians, and they had spent a amassed ammunition and made considerable preparations. Yet it was hastened by the murder of a friendly Indian by order of Philip. the English insisted on punishing the murderers and Philip fearing that he should be implicated, sent commenced hostilities at once, and attacked the people of Swanzy [Swansea] as they were returning from public worship, and killed 9 persons. The Indians came simultaneously and attacked most of the frontier towns. Some skirmishes took place. Brookfield was burnt, and September 1st Hadley was attacked during [illegible] The Massachusetts forces came to Swanzy and having joined with those of Plymouth, they pursued Philip into a swamp at Pocasset. Here he was in great danger of falling into the hands of the English, yet escaped. Skirmishes took place in different places at Hatfield and Deerfield and about 20 houses were burnt at Brookfield. At Hatfield the inhabitants were surprised when at public worship, and here were in the utmost [consternation?]. Suddenly a [illegible] elderly personage appeared among them, who rallied them, placed himself at their head, and the [illegible] by this they charged the Indians with some vigor and repulsed them.— When the Inhabitants sought their benevolent commander he had disappeared, and for many years they supposed that he had been sent by an angel. At a subsequent period it was ascertained that this person was Col. Goffe, one of the judges of King Charles 1st who was then concealed in Hadley.

About 80 persons were killed at a place called under the command of Captain Lathrop were sent to Deerfield to guard a quantity of corn, which was to be sent to Hadley. These persons were surprised by the Indians at a place called Bloody Brook, and were nearly all cut off. — This was considered a great misfortune, for they belonged to respectable families in the county of Essex.

In the December following the English forces attacked the Narraganset Indians in their wigwams. They came unexpectedly upon them, and having penetrated within their fortifications set fire to them, and great numbers of the Indians perished. This winter was a season of continual alarm and terror to the English, and some mischief was done by the Indians. In the beginning of the war the English made vigorous preparations for defending themselves and annoying the enemy but the spirits of the Indians began to flag. are they were in great need of provisions and their ammunition was almost expended.

The Massachusetts Colonists were successful in several skirmishes with and Philip was obliged to flee. He concealed himself in a swamp near Mount Hope Bristol, where he was surrounded by the Colonists. he was shot.

We now come to the recital of events both extraordinary and unaccountable, and which tend to show how deeply the human mind may be tinctured with credulity and superstition. In England at this time a great degree of ignorance pervaded and a predisposition to attribute for the immediate effect of a divine agency in trivial for occurrences.— and it scarcely can be considered strange that the people of New England surrounded by hideous forests, and continually exposed to the incursions of hostile Indians should believe that Demons influenced the actions of many about them. when the learned [greene?] and pious Sir [Mathew?] should suffered a woman to be convicted of the crime of witchcraft and executed.

In the year 1645, some persons at Springfield Mass were accused of witchcraft— and some at Dorchester and Cambridge. In 1669 a young woman at Hartford one Ann Cole was [4 illegible words stricken] was [sic] accused of witchcraft, and having confessed herself to be guilty was executed.

In 1683 several persons upon Connecticut River were accused of witchcraft. At Hadley Mr. Philip Smith a [several illegible words] fancied that he was tormented by one of his neighbors, and died under that impression. He was In 1687 the children of John Goodson of Boston a person at Littleton, were said to be tormented by a witch, and a scene of fraud and imposition was long practiced that seems almost incredible. The children would pretend to be deaf, dumb, and blind, that their limbs were dislocated, and the sight of a Bible or prayer book threw them into fits. — Many years after when the second sister became a member of the Church at Medford she confessed

In February 1692 began the some young girls in Salem Massachusetts of complained began to accuse persons in the vicinity of tormenting them, and they fell into fits and swoonings, and cried out that they were pinched and [beate?]. A physician was called in who not understanding the disease, decided that they were bewitched. A fast was held and prayer meetings appointed, and the affair caused so much disturbance that others were induced to imitate them and in a short time the number of the afflicted were not a increased very fast. The [illegible strikeout] afflicted persons were examined a a [sic] court held at Salem, and it is well worth observing that as these the questions were not put in such a manner as to draw from them any avowal of the fraud or to confound them, but they were rather conducted to help. There were not cross questions, and the interrogator was often the parent of the afflicted. — Some simple persons terrified at the accusations at the accusations that were brought against them, acknowledged that they had much a league with the devil, and that he sometimes came in the shape of a black cat, at others of a black well dressed back man and sometimes of a horse. They owned that they had made a league or covenant with him by putting their finger to a book, and described the meetings that took place between them devil. Yet The number of the afflicted continually increased, and the number of the accused. The prisons were filled with them, and after a [circumstantial?] trial they were condemned and executed. Great alarm was excited throughout the colonies, yet no measures were taken to detect the imposture. Some persons found it necessary to leave the colony, and Sir William Phips lately the secretary of the state of Connecticut, and several Clergymen were among those who were accused. the those Many who had been tried and condemned, after the first astonishment had subsided recanted what they had before confessed, and yet nineteen persons were executed and not about fifty were detained a long time in prison.

In no age or nation have those scenes been It is generally believed that new England was the principal of all transactions of this nature., but this is a mistake — the age was a credulous one, and in other places England in other countries persecutions against witchcraft were carried, yet and in England there were persons who went from county to county for the purpose of detecting witches. Yet in no other place were the prosecutions carried on with so much formality, or the proceedings recorded with so much precision as in New England.

In 1688 the war between the Indians and the colonists called King Williams war broke out, The This was owing to some trifling aggressions on both sides. The Indians made an attack upon the house of Major Waldron at Cochus [Cocheco] or Dover. They killed him and 23 others and 29 were taken prisoners. Some other mischief was done and it was found necessary to raise forces to repel these aggressions. These proceeded into New Hampshire where some skirmished took place.

The Cound de Frontenac governor of Canada, sent three [parties?] expeditions into the colonies, one of which took Schenectady another Salmon Fall[s], and a third Casco. An unsuccessful attempt was made by the colonies to take possessions of Canada but they failed can safely entirely, and the troops were compelled to return with some loss.— This [fleet?] expedition was commanded by the celebrated Sir William Phips.

The Indians continued their depredations upon the English many [grave?] persons were either slain or taken prisoner and carried to Canada.

In 1699 this war terminated, and the Indians willingly conceded to such terms as the Colonists were pleased to dictate. Peace continued until 1703 when some Englishmen having fallen upon and Indian settlement at Castine, the Indians instigated by the Governor of Canada fell upon the English frontier settlements, and committed some acts of horrid barbarity. They came unawares at Deerfield, and the Inhabitants were dragged from their beds in an inclement night in the month of February, and compelled to to be either massacred or to suffer all the horrors of a hideous march through [two illegible strikeouts] the trackless wilderness, and exposed to all the tortures that the ingenuity of their Indian masters could invent. Mr. Williams, their clergyman, well was carried to Canada with several his children, he survived to return and he has left and interesting journal of his captivity. His children were mostly redeemed.— yet one daughter cl yielding to the persuasions of the Catholic priests remained and became the wife of an Indian chief. Her descendants have been educated in New England.

Another party appeared upon the Merrimack and committed some depredations and the eastern towns suffered [cous…] Monjor, and the English endeavoured to [amazy] their [foes] by some expeditions against their armies. In one of the Port Royal was taken, yet in a subsequent expedition in which it was intended to conquer Canada they were unsuccessful. In 1716 peace was made with the Indians who renewed their promises of fidelity. This was called Queen Anne’s War.

In 1723 a war broke out between the colonists and Indians which continued three years and has been denominated Lovewells’s War. The proceedings of a a Ralle, a French Jesuit who had built a church and established himself at Norridgewag and was a man of singular talents and address had long displeased the colonists, and for he had become very influential among the Indians, and had converted many of them to the Catholic Religion — The Col. Indians began to exhibit some symptoms of disaffections and yet did not [recuture] upon open hostilities, until an attempt which  [m]ade by the English to seize Ralle and this evoked their indignation to such a degree that they instantly began [to harrass?] the frontier towns, where they killed many persons. [The?] remarkable transaction during this war, is the expedition of John Lovewell, who with a company of men most made three expeditions in pursuit of their enemies. In the third he fell into an ambuscade of the Indians and was shot. Yet this gallant with company maintained their post, and compelled their savage foes to retreat. Many of the party perished on their return, from famine and fatigue, and many years after they were their corpses were discovered in the forests. A pond in new Hampshire is now called Lovewell’s Pond from these transactions. — But a peace with the Indians was concluded in 1725 and the colonies were delivered from further dread [illegible strikeout] of these implacable foes.

It is well known that William Penn was the founder of Pennsylvania — and as the History of his private life seems interwoven with that of early settlement of the state, it is proposed to give a short sketch of it. drawn from such sources collected from do authentic Documents.

Of the private life of William Penn but few materials remain from which we can obtain much satisfactory information. It is well known that his father was an Admiral of the British navy, yet perhaps it may not be as well understood, that he passed regularly through the subordinate grades before he was promoted to the Admiralship, and that his uncommon merit obtained for him distinguished honours. He commanded the fleet, under the Duke of York, and obtained a signal victory over the Dutch [in] 1665. He raised at Wanstead in the county of Essex.

William Penn (the proprietor of Pennsylvania) was born at London in the year 1644, In his At and early age he discovered manifested an genius for learning and his father caused him to be entered as a student of Oxford in the fifteenth year of his age, Here he first imbibed the principles that he afterwards professed, and withdrew from the established Church. This [2 illegible words struck out] He was fined and at last expelled from College — and on his return home was admonished and, treated with some severity by his Father. and when nothing would induce him to abjure the principles that he had adopted, he was turned out of doors. His Father After some time his Father relented, and he was sent to France with several persons of quality. where he acquired the French Language. and became an accomplished gentleman. On his return he was entered as a student at Law, at Lincolns Inn London. In 1666 he was sent to Ireland, to superintend an estate belonging to his Father. an Where he again fell in with a company of Quakers, and an old acquaintance, and eminent preacher Thomas Love, His former inclination for the particular doctrines and usages of these people revived and he continued to attend their meetings. This caused him with many others to be imprisoned, and yet he was afterwards released on application to the Earl of Perrey.

On his return to England, his Father was much [incensed?] at his conduct, and as it seems that at this time he had adopted the dress and usages of the Quakers, and refused to appear uncovered in the presence of his Father or even of the king— he was very severely admonished and then turned out of doors a second time. In 1668, he first appeared as a preacher of the gospel, and the same year being 24 years of age he published several works, one of which was entitled “the Sandy Foundation Shaken. This work gave so much offence that he was imprisoned in the tower. where he successfully vindicated himself in a piece entitled “Innocency with her open face”— and he was discharged. He was afterwards twice imprisoned and suffered persecution in various ways, all which he bore with Christian fortitude, and defended himself with great ability in several works. In 1677, he visited Holland and Germany in company with George Fox, and Robert Barkley eminent Quakers, and preachers, of which he has left an account in a journal., which is still extant, Soon after he received the grant of the province of Pennsylvania from the Crown of England, as a remuneration of a debt due to his Father.— The instrument bears [the] date 1681, and William Penn soon after issued proposals to settlers. A number of persons closed with his offers and 3 ships being fitted out, sailed for this new country. —  One of them arrived December 1681. and the passengers were obliged to pass the winter at Chester Creek. The next year William Penn arrived and landed at new Earth 24 October. He was received with demonstrations of joy both by the Swedes and English. and in the soon after the first legislative assembly was held at Upland. now called Chester. he visited new York and Baltimore, Maryland and began to purchase lands from the Indians. In a letter from him dated  [at] Chester. he says “I am now casting the country into townships, for large lots of land. I have held an assembly in which many good laws are passed; we could not safely  stay til spring for a government. I have passed a general naturalization for strangers, which hath much pleased the people. — As to outward things we are  satisfied, the land good, the air clear and sweet, the springs plentiful, and provision good, and easy to come at, and an innumerable quantity of wild fowl.”

In 1682, with the assistance of his Surveyor General to he laid out the city of Philadelphia upon the site of an Indian village of Cognomuck. Many of the early settlers had their first habitations in the holes upon the bank of the river Delaware and the first native was born in a cave long afterwards known by the name of Penny Pot, near Sassafrass or River Street. (His name was John Key, and he died in 1787.)

With regard to the city we will borrow William Penn’s account, “It is advanced, says he “within less than a year to about four score houses and cottages, such as they are, where merchants and handicrafts are following their vocations, as fast as they can, while the country men are close at their farms, some of them, got a little winter corn in the ground last season, and the generality have an handsome summer crop. We are daily in hopes of shipping to add to our numbers; for blessed be God. here is both room and accommodation for them. The stories of our necessity, being either the fears of our friends of the scare-crows of our enemies.”

The same year between 20 and 30 ships arrived with a great number of settlers, and the parts adjacent to the Delaware river were soon peopled— for an extent of about fifty miles. The next year many others arrived, and the colony was prosperous and flourishing. This our William Penn’s residence was at Pennbury Manor, a little below the falls of the Delaware and about 25 miles from the city. (This town house was on the site of what is now called Letitia Court.) Having settled the affairs of the province, and beheld the flourishing and happy condition of his people, re returned to England in 1684. In 1685 he published an account of Pennsylvania and wrote several other pieces. He travelled much on the continent and in England and exerted himself most effectually to serve the Quakers. He was much at court and held in great esteem by King James. so that many persons accused him of secretly being a papist, a charge which he ably refutes in a letter to William Popple. After the late revolution of 1688 he was thought to be too much attached to the late exiled King James, and he was brought before the Lords in Council, where he was accused of a treasonable correspondence, with and was compelled to give securities, for his appearance before them again. he was accused in this manner a second and a third time, but he was finally enabled to prove his innocence and was acquitted And being wearied with these continual persecutions he came a second time to America with his wife and family in 1699. He was received with much joy, and it was hoped that he had come to fix  his residence among them. He attended to the affairs of the province and endeavoured to introduce Christianity and civilization among the Indians.

In 1701, intelligence was received from England that a plan was in agitation and would be laid before the parliament at their next session, in which it was proposed to reduce the proprietary governments in America into regal ones. and William Penn was much solicited by his friends in England, to return [therefore?] to prevent, if possible, the bill from being laid before parliament. He appointed William Andrew Hamilton to be deputy Governor and James Loque Deputy Governor secretary and having settled all other matters concerning the government. he returned to England 1701. But the accession of Queen Anne not long after his return changed the face of affairs. and he was received into favour, and went after to court. — 

He returned no more to America, but settled at Rushcomb in Berks. where he lived several years. he died 1718. His last writings evince his attachment to the state which he founded, and his last injunctions to his descendants were “to come and reside here.”


Lancaster county was laid out in the year 1729, and the first date upon records of the Lutheran Church bears that of 1730 —


[193-199 missing; 201] New York —

In the year 1608 Henry Hudson a celebrated navigator in the service of the Dutch, discovered the river which bears his name — and By right of discovery the Dutch laid claim to the country, & In 1614 they formed a settlement, near the mouth of the river. — but the Governor of Virginia alleging that the English had a prior claim to the country to America obliged them to acknowledge his authority. A Governor however, soon after arriving from Amsterdam they refused to be considered as subjects of Great Britain and made a show of resistance by building several forts, one on the Delaware, one on the Hudson, and a third upon the Connecticut.


Fort Orange was erected on the site which Albany now occupies.


This settlement was called New Netherlands — and the city of New York, New Amsterdam

[202 missing; 203] Delawar[e?]

The Swedes and Finlanders as early as the reign of Gustavus Adolphus, projected a plan for colonizing America.–and in the year 1627 they landed at Cape Inlopen, and purchased lands from the Indians. on both sides of the river Delaware where they established  themselves. They lied on friendly terms  with the natives. but the Dutch sometimes disturbed them, although they united with the Swedes to prevent if possible, the English from forming settlements here.

In 1681 the Swedes erected a fort not far from the site of Wilmington on a small creek, which from them, has  since borne the name of Christien or Christina. The settlement was called New Sweden. —

In 1635 the Dutch fitted out a fleet the command of which was given to Peter Stuyvesant their Governor. They fell upon the Swedish settlements in Delaware — and having destroyed many of the houses. and committed other depredations, they imprisoned the many of the principal inhabitants, and compelled the remainder to acknowledge themselves subjects of the Dutch. — 

New Netherland and New Sweden continued under the Government of the Dutch until 1664, when the English becoming jealous of their increasing power, determined to conquer them.

At this time Charles the 2nd granted a patent to his Brother the Duke of York, of all the lands lying north [sic] of Delaware Bay and south of the river at St. Croix.

The same year a fleet was sent to America, under the command of Rovert Carr, having on board a small body of land forces under the command of Col.l Nichols. — On their arrival, off new Amsterdam they dispersed proclamations throughout the country inviting the Inhabitants to submit to his majesty’s government. Several letters passed between Stuyvesant the Governor and Col.l Nichols [illegible strikeout] and the Dutch finding that the English were resolute in their enterprize submitted with the best grace they could, and the English marched into new Amsterdam.

Thirteen days after Col. Nichols, marched to Albany or fort orange which he reduced, and the whole province henceforth belonged to the Crown of England. —

The same year they proceeded to New Sweden, and compelled them also to become subjects of Britain.

After the Jews had Which the Hebrews [resided?] and wandered in the Desert, their habitations are of New Jersey

In 1664 the Duke of York sold to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret that part of the new Netherlands which was contiguous to the Hudson, and the east and Delaware Bay and river on the West—

In 1669 of 1670 a great number of Planters came into this state, and the flourishing towns of Elizabeth Newark, Middletown and Shrewsbury were laid out and in a few years were full of Inhabitants and in a flourishing state.

Yet there were Inhabitants in new jersey long before this, for the town of Bergen, it is supposed was founded as early as 1620. —

We have already mentioned the discovery of North America by John Cabot in the reign of Henry 7th. No attempts, however were made to form settlements here until the reign of Queen Elizabeth . / By a patent bearing date 1584, Sir Walter Raleigh obtained the exclusive privilege of discovering and taking possession of lands not occupied by a Christian people ion these coasts. Several attempts were made by Raleigh and his partners to form a settlement at the mouth of the river Roanoke in North Carolina.— But through mismanagement they entirely failed and Raleigh being engaged in other projects, assigned his right to Thomas Smith and a company of merchants in London.— who merely carried on an insignificant traffic with the Indians.

In 1606 James 1st issued a new patent by which he divided the country into two parts, granting the north of a company of persons in Plymouth and the south to a company in London.

In 1607 a fleet was filled [fitted?] out under the command of Captain Newport by the London Company destined to form a permanent settlement in America. A violent storm drove him into Chespeak Bay and those on board viewing this great inlet with admiration he was induced to explore it and sailed up the James a large river which the natives called Powatan, now known to us as the James River. They proceeded about forty miles up this river, and landed on an island which they fixed upon for a settlement. and They named their infant settlement James City — and inconsiderable ruin now marks the spot. The celebrated Captain John Smith who has often been called the Father of Virginia was [illegible strikeouts] one of this band of Emigrants and was a member of the council, which had been appointed in England, to regulate the affairs of the colony on their arrival.

By the prudence and vigilance of Captain Smith the infant colony was preserved, and although the whole country was full of Indians, yet who annoyed them and seemed bent on extirpating them yet he contrived to baffle all their schemes. —

The Indians in Virginia were divided into small independent The unhealthiness of the climate and want of provisions, often brough were the sources of great calamities to the settlers and in a few months more than half the number died;

The incessant and harrassing depredations required with The Indians were divided into small independent tribes, each governed by its own chief. — [illegible word] At the junction of the Appomattax and James rivers was seated one of the most powerful tribes in that parts of the country, and the Chief Powhatan was an irreconcilable inveterate enemy of the English. In an incursion into the territory of the Indians, Captain Smith was taken prisoner by them, after a most gallant resistance on his part. — Cap He was led to Powhatan the chief who commanded them him to be put him to death. His head was laid upon the fatal block and he waited for the last stroke — When At this moment, the Pocahantas the daughter of Powhatan rushed in and laying her head interposing herself between him and his executioners, declared the first blow should fall upon herself— Her tears and entreaties prevailed and he was spared, and set at liberty. —

Captain Smith was eminently serviceable to the colony and by his prudence care and vigilance foresight they were prevented from starving. He surveyed all the coast of the Chesapeak Bay, and the map which he constructed is still looked upon as authentic. — But an unhappy accident deprived the colony of the services of this useful man — By a dreadful explosion of gunpowder he was so dreadfully mangled burnt as to be compelled to go to England for medical advice. — Pocahontas was always distinguished for her attachment to the English, and was much beloved by them. She was married to Mr. Rolfe an English gentleman, and subsequently went to England, where she met with Captain Smith, and was treated with much distinction  by persons of rank. — From her are descended some of the most respectable families in Virginia. — The alliance with Pocahontas, put an end to the war, and from henceforward the Indians were useful allies of the English.

Thus were the American colonies settled —

Their first Legislators were in general wise and prudent. The Colonies increased with amazing rapidity. — French refugees, Germans, Irish and others came hither in great numbers. and in the space of 150 years American might boast upwards of three millions of Inhabitants. — They were mostly industrious and enterprising, and they increased in wealth, and their commerce was in the soon one third greater than that of Britain.

Although they acknowledged the authority of Great Britain yet at an early period the Legislative Assemblies were held in the different states and a spirit of republicanism pervaded all their proceedings. — the people elected their own rulers and paid them, and enacted laws. And at a very resisted with obstinacy all encroachments upon their rights as freemen. — no distinction of rank was ever known in America — the first buds of Liberty were nourished with care and thus the sons of the early settlers acquired that manly freedom which has since been so strongly characterized American citizens.

In the first years of the settlement of the colonies, Great Britain paid but little attention to them. Absorbed in the wars and contests that agitated Europe — she had little [illegible] Leisure to turn her paid no attention thought [manuscript piece missing] who had located themselves in a howling [damage] surrounded by hostile barbarians [damaged] them at a blow.

. . . became a mighty nation ere she was aware. Separated from her by an ocean of 300 miles, out tranquility or prosperity suffered little or no interruption from the wars or political contests in which she was engaged and we had full leisure to lay the foundation of our present greatness and prosperity.

Our hardy and adventurous sons were engaged in several several wars with the native Inhabitants. They became cautious and brave soldiers, and were prepared for any contest that might ensue. They defended their frontiers with skill and prudence, extended them daily, and the[y] proud and untrained yet generous native, receded before them and plassed into the fled to the forests and plains of the west.— We can not enter into the — . . .

As early as 1745 the new England militia signalized themselves in an expedition to Cape Breton, and a French colony. Louisburg was taken by them — and they acquired some reputation yet this expedition was badly planned. At an early period the French had made settlements in Canada, from whence they had extended themselves along the great chain of Lakes.— and even to the Ohio river a part of the Mississippi.  Upon the site of what is now Pittsburg, they had constructed a fort known as Fort Du Quesne and had [along?] much settlements in Illinois. About the year 1743 disputes arose between the English and French respecting the lands west of the Ohio river. The French had determined to erect construct a chain of forts which might form a communication between their settlements on the Ohio and mississippi rivers and those in Canada. The English Ohio Company laid claim to the lands adjacent to the Ohio river. Some of the English fur traders were abused and insulted by the French — and mutual complaints were carried to their respective courts. — The Governor of Virginia also though proper to interfere, and he sent a remonstrance to the French commandant on the Ohio. In this important service he employed George Washington a young Virginian who with but one attendant, Washington and in the midst of winter. Washington passed across the almost trackless forests, and after encountering the severest hardships reached fort Du Quesne in safety. But the French commandant treated his message with contempt and declared he would seize every British trader, found in that quarter

A war was the consequence of this reply, and the states prepared to  colonies sustain the made preparations for defending themselves. A meeting of delegates was held at Albany in which they proposed to take upon themselves the expences and conduct of the war. This was however rejected by the British ministry, not much to the satisfaction of the colonies. —

A body of forces was soon after sent to America, under the command of General Braddock. — The Americans united with him and the war was carried on with Spirit and success. — General Braddock, however suffered a most disastrous defeat, not far [from] fort Du Quesne. his troops suffered severely and he was mortally wounded. This war continued until the year 1763. The colonists cheerfully furnished their proportion of supplies for carrying it on, and their privateers  committed depredations upon the commerce of the French.

The termination of this war was fated to the interests  interests of the French in America. Peace was made in 1763 and Great Britain found that she had acquired all the Canadas and that her possessions in America were equal in extent to several large kingdoms in Europe — In this war Georg the military talents of George Washington were eminently conspicuous.

While this war continued the prosperity of the colonies suffered no interruption, their population increased their commerce was daily extending, the advantages of education had ben extended to a great portion of the citizens — much talent had already been elicited and American might now boast of a great number of persons, whose acquirements would do honour intellectual acquirements were of the very first order.

The colonists were attached to the mother country, and willingly acknowledged their allegiance to her. Yet they looked watched with earnestness all the conduct of Great Britain.

. . . with respect to themselves, and were ready to resist all encroachments. Hitherto the government of Great Britain had behaved with great amity to America, but About the year 1764 Great Britain they changed their system of system of policy towards the colonies. — The mother country The national debt had been much augmented by the recent wars, and while the mother country was struggling with this oppressive load, the ministry conceived the plan of partially relieving here by taxing the colonies.

Sundry inferior restrictions were at first laid upon the commerce of the colonies, which as duties upon all goods imported into them from certain West India islands. — This made considerable disturbance and soon after the promulgation of the Stamp Act, created an universal alarm. — By the Stamp Act no person in America was permitted to use any paper for [ducks? debts?] or any other writings, unless stamped with the king’s arms, and for this they were obliged to pay a small sum.

When this bill was before the parliament, some very interesting debates took place. and it was opposed by the ablest men in England. —  . . .  Dr. Franklin, then in England, foretold what would be the probable consequence of these measures. In a letter to Charles Thompson, he says “ The sun of Liberty is set we must light up the candles of industry and economy. — [“] In his reply — Mr. Thompson said he was apprehensive that other lights fires would . . . 

On this occasion Mr. Henry made one of his most eloquent speeches. — “Caesar has had his Brutus., said he, Charles the First his Cromwell, and George the Third . . .  Here a voice from the crowd cried out “treason, treason”— but he calmly replied finished — may profit by their example.

After a violent opposition the Stamp Act was passed, the two houses of parliament.

When this act arrived at Boston, the bells were tolled muffled. and the Act was printed with a death’s head affixed to it. — and with this inscription, “the folly of England and the ruin of America.” The people were so enraged that they burnt all the Stamps they could find.

As the Stamp Duty was not to go into operation until November 1766, the people had ample time to discuss the subject examine and discuss the subject. Patrick Henry of Virginia, brought into the house of Congress, a set of resolutions in which the right of taxation was unequivocally denied. Similar resolutions were passed in the legislative assemblies of the other states. — The people were roused from one extremity of the continent to the other — With one consent they rallied to resist this oppression, Many Pamphlets, written with spirit and ability were thrown into circulation, and these tended to nourish the flame.

When the period arrived that the Stamp Duty was to go into operation — a most extraordinary opposition was made to it by the different towns.

When the vessel arrived at Philadelphia which brought the stamped papers, the vessel lying in the river hoisted their colours half mast — the bells were tolled muffled and every countenance betokened some great national calamity. — In Boston the 1st of November was ushered in by the tolling of bells: effigies of those who had been the authors of the Stamp Act, were carried about the streets and then torn in pieces by the enraged populace. The Stamp Master of New York, was unable to execute the duties of his office, and was obliged to resign. An effigy of the Governor of that state was suspended from a gallows, holding in one hand a stamped bill of lading in the other a devil. — It was afterwards burnt. —

In Portsmouth New Hampshire, a procession was formed, in which a coffin was borne with this inscription “Liberty is dead.[“] They deposited it in a grave, — but they attempted that some signs of life appearing, it was taken up and with great rejoicings. — and a new procession formed bearing a banner with the inscription “Liberty revived.”

In every town the popular discontent was strongly exhibited. In 1765 Deputies from the principal states met at new York, in (This was called the first American Congress) and they resolved to refrain from using British manufactured articles.

Much commotion was excited in England in consequence of the opposition states of affairs in America. And some most animated debates took place in . . .  And in parliament the subject was debated with great animation the patriotic speeches of that day ought never to be forgotten by Americans. —“You have no right to tax America, said William Pitt, I rejoice that she has resisted!” —

The ministry were finally compelled to yield to the torrent and the Stamp Act was repealed March 18, 1766. But they wished wishing to support, at any rate, the appearance of authority, about the same time they published a declaratory bill in which they declared asserted that they had the most perfect right to bind America by any laws and taxes whatever.

The next year a bill passed the house of commons laying a duty upon painters colours, glass and tea. This met with the most outrageous opposition in America and the people were in a perfect tumult. They began to form regular combinations against it, circulars were issued, meetings were held, and terrible disputes arose between the different Legislatures and the royal Governors. — The obnoxious bill was finally repealed but as many person contended that the duty on tea ought to be retained, a motion to that effect was made and finally carried by a large majority. The American determined to drink no tea, imported from Great Britain, and the merchants supplied their countrymen by smuggling it from other countries. The East Company were allowed at New York although the Governor caused some of the tea to be landed. Yet he was obliged to give it up to the people.

A few days after these vessels had entered Boston harbour, a number of persons disguised as Mohawk Indians, went on board the ships, broke open and emptied every chest the contents of every chest of tea into the ocean. A small quantity which was found in the shoes of one of the party was preserved, and may now be seen in the Boston museum. One of the persons was hiding not long to export tea to all countries free of duty, and several vessels laden with it were sent to America. The Captains of the vessels were afraid to enter the ports of new York and Philadelphia and returned to England, but two ships ventured into the port of Boston + At this time Boston presented a scene of confusion, [about some time his or this?] General Gage had bene stationed here with two  regiments of foot, some disturbances had already arisen and On the 5th of March 1770 in a scuffle between the soldiers and some of the people of the town, they had fired upon the people and killed or wounded several persons. — A terrible tumult arose the whole province colony was in motion and General gage was obliged to retire to Castle William. Things continued in this states for some time, the disgust and dissatisfaction of the Americans increased, and they began to collect stores and make preparations for defences and all who could bear arms  were assiduously employed in learning the art of war.

At length General Gage began to entertain the most serious apprehensions, he seized upon some powder which had been and other stores which the people had disposed at Charlestown and Cambridge, and attempted to fortify Boston neck.— This [rendered?] the People almost outrageous, and it was with great difficulty that they could be appeased.

In 1774 Delegates from the different States, met at Philadelphia They did nothing, however, except draw up a number of resolutions which were circulated among the people — During the winter of 1775 — affairs began to wear a more alarming aspect, and it was near thought that hostilities would commence on the opening of spring. — nor did they mistake. —

The Americans had collected a quantity of military stores which were deposited at Concord, near Boston. In the month of April General gage sent a detachment to Concord to destroy or seize them. The British left Boston during the night and marched with the utmost caution, hoping to pass across the country unobserved, but the Americans were ever on the watch and by the ringing of bells and firing of guns gave notice to their fellow citizens. They arrived at Lexington on the dawn almost soon after the day began to dawn — where they found a small party drawn up to oppose them. A skirmish ensued and several of the Americas were either killed or wounded. and the remainder fled. They proceeded to Concord where a second engagement took place, but the British accomplished the object of their expedition. On their return they were assailed by the Americas from behind  trees and fences, and their march resembled a flight. On this memorable day the British lost 250. The Americans about 60. —

The flames, which had now been so long pent up, burst forth with fury, and the people were all in motion. The Legislature of Massachusetts, then sitting, voted to raise an army of 30,000 men. All ram The enthusiasm was not confined to one class of persons. Clergymen from the desk exhorted their flocks to go forth in this sacred cause, [Lawyers? dyers?], merchants, mechanics all embarked cheerfully in this great undertaking. printers and writers threw great numbers of pamphlets into circulation, which advocated the cause and served to fan the flame.

A provincial army was soon stationed in the neighborhood of Boston. The Americans entrenched themselves on Breeds Hill near Boston, A detachment of the British was ordered to dislodge them. A battle ensued in which the British were twice obliged to retreat, for the Americans fought like lions until they had expended all their ammunition, when they slowly and [sullenly?] retired— The British lost 1054. The Americans [severally?] 500. The 17 of June 1825 completed fifty years since the battle of Bunker Hill. and A new Congress having been convened at Philadelphia. George Washington of Virginia was appointed Commander in Chief of the American forces. When he arrived at Cambridge, the constitution of he found an army, but in a most disorganized state, there was no uniformity of dress. they were unprovided with necessaries and their tents were made of old sails. there was neither ammunition or money.— General Was[hington] endeavoured to discipline his troops and in some measure succeeded, and he was providentially supplied with ammunition by the capture of several British ships laden with stores by Captain Manley of Boston. —

This year, 1775, was also rendered memorable by the taking of Ticonderoga by Allen and Arnold, and influenced by the representations of Colonel Arnold, Congress determined to invade Canada — The was a most disastrous expedition, General Mongomery was killed before Quebec and many of the American became prisoners of war.—

In the mean time the people of Virginia were in a great tumult owing to the conduct of Lord Dunmore the royal Governor, who was finally obliged to flee and take refuge on board a man of war — Lord Dunmore was impolitic as well as impetuous — he caused his emissaries to set fire to the flourishing town of Norfolk — which was reduced to a heap of ruins— and some private representations which he made to the English Government, heightened the popular discontent. — Similar scenes took place in the Carolinas. Governor Martin of North Carolina was obliged to flee — and before the opening of the Spring 1776 all the thirteen provinces were arrayed against the Mother Country. — General Washington remained at Boston, during the winter. but he was not inactive. The British troops of General Gage Howe were shut up in the town — and the Americans having fortified the principal heights, seized all the stores upon the islands and burned the light House, they were soon in great want of provisions. Many of the inhabitants were permitted to retire, with their effects.

The British fleet was stationed in the Harbour, and in such a position as to command Dorchester Heights. On the night of the 4th of march, the Americans silently took possession of these heights, and as they wrought with considerable diligence, their works were soon in a state of great forwardness — When morning dawned and Admiral Graves the Commander of the British ship came upon deck he was perfectly thunderstruck, and returning to the Cabin where Lord Howe was sleeping he [awakened?] him by exclaiming, “My Lord, I shall remove my fleet out of Boston Harbour without loss of time. — [“] “Why so, enquired his Lordship, are the Yankees about to play us any new trick,” “Come out and see, come out and see, reiterated the Admiral these creatures have fortified Dorchester heights, since last night, and if I stay in the harbour much longer, they will build a fort upon my main deck.[”]

The British finding they could no longer keep possession of Boston made preparations for evacuating it. and on the 17th of March General Washington entered the town. The British retired to Halifax.

In the mean time the British ministry had fitted out two fleets — one intended for new York, the other for Charlestown S. Carolina. — the attack upon Charleston was unsuccessful —  but they landed upon Staten Island in New York Harbour and finally took possession of Long Island

The Congress, now sitting at Philadelphia — determined to act with decision — and despairing of lenity or justice from Great Britain, determined to act with decision and accordingly articles of perpetual union and confederation were having been previously drawn up — and they determined to renounce forever their connexion with Great Britain and declare themselves free and independent. Our celebrated declaration of Independence was published the 4th day of July 1776.

General Washington, finding that the British were determined on the conquest of new York, forfeited the islands and stationed a body of forces on Long Island. On the 4th of August an engagement took place near Flat Bush which was most fatal to the Americans. They lost a great number of officers as well as privates and General Sullivan fell into the hands of the British. — After some negotiations this battle some negotiations were entered into between Congress and Lord Howe — Dr. Franklin  & Mr.s Adams and Rutledge were appointed a committee to confer with his Lordship. Nothing, however, was done, — When the committee were about to take leave of Lord Howe, he very foolishly expressed his regret, that he should be obliged to adopt measures that might be personally inconvenient to persons for whom he had so much regard. Dr. Franklin, replied that he need be under no manner of uneasiness, as the Americans knew how to  take good care of themselves.” The close of the campaign of 1776 was exceedingly unfortunate for the Americans. They were obliged to abandon Long Island, to evacuate New York, and finally to retreat into jersey and from there to N. York. Pennsylvania The situation of the American soldiers was now truly most distressing. They were without tents or blankets. and had no utensils to dress their provisions. Their clothes were in tatters and they were without shoes. & many of them applied for permission to return  home. —

The British spread themselves all over the [Racy?]. — plundering and burning and they only waited until the ice in the Delaware was sufficiently strong to cross into Pennsylvania. — On Christmas Eve General Washington recrossed the Delaware, came upon the Hessian troops troops [sic] at Trenton, unawares, and captured about 400. Soon after in a second expedition into new jersey the an action  took place at Princeton, in which the Americans were successful. — and in a masterly retreat from Trenton to Princeton, Washington acquired signal renown.

The British were rather disheartened at these losses and retreated — The Americans exasperated at their conduct, harrassed them and destroyed great numbers. In the beginning of the campaign of 1777, the both the British and Americans sent out parties which made predatory incursions into considerable havoc destroyed some towns and stores and made some prisoners. The British finally despaired of reaching Philadelphia from the Jerseys, and they sent a fleet into Chesapeak bay. sending A body of forces were landed at the eastern branches of the Chesapeak, from whence they began their march towards Philadelphia— General Washington advanced to meet them. — The Two armies met at Chadds ford on the Brandy-wine river — where a severe action battle was fought in which the Americans were entirely defeated. Many officers of distinction were wounded among whom we may mention the Count Pulaski and the Marquis La Fayette.

Washington was compelled to evacuate Philadelphia and the British took possession of the city. Congress fled to Baltimore.

The American army was stationed at Whitemarsh a few miles from Philadelphia. The British had stationed a part of their army at Germantown, frequent skirmishes took place with various success, and a severe battle was fought at Germantown.— and on one occasion a party of American were most inhumanly massacred at Paoli Tavern.

On the approach of winter, General Washington retreated with his army  to Valley Forge. — where they encamped for the winter. This was a season of calamity and suffering to the poor soldiers. They had no tents or blankets, and they were glad to shelter themselves in such huts, built of the branches of trees. The close of the campaign of 1777 was unfortunate for the Americans in Pennsylvania, but it was amply compensated by the most brilliant successes in the northern department.

General Burgoyne with a body of British forces attempted to force a passage from Canada into New York. He was met at Bennington by General Stark with the new Hampshire militia, who defeated a detachment of his army. And the hardy yeomanry of New England rising in a body — and embodying themselves to oppose his progress. General Burgoyne only met with difficulties and disasters. —

At Stillwater he was opposed by General Gates with a body of forces. A decisive battle took place in which the British suffered  much a considerable loss. Several days were passed in skirmishes in The Americans daily became more animated and their army was continually increasing.— Defeats and disasters followed the footsteps of the British, and finally General Burgoyne despairing of either success or assistance, surrendered. (October 17 __) His army amounted to upwards of 5000 men, who became prisoners of war. their arms and ammunition fell into the hands of the Americans.

The commencement of the year 1778 was rendered memorable by our treaty with France. the King of France formally recognized our independence and this was soon followed by a declaration of war between the two powers England and France.

At the opening of the campaign of 1778 —  Congress made unusual exertions… to raise troops and also to furnish them with necessaries. — In general they were met with some success—  at any rate their hopes and spirits were much raised, in consequences of advices received from Europe,, and they rejected with great spirit some overtures that were made on the part of Great Britain for a reconciliation. —

Such was the state of affairs that about the 28th of June Sir Henry Clinton found it necessary to evacuate Philadelphia., General Washington having early intelligence of these proceedings, made every preparation to obstruct their march through the Jersey  from the two of June. — and here one of the most desperate battles was fought of the revolution was fought — Great numbers especially on the part of the British were slain. and neither party could fairly claim the victory. — The same night the British retreated in all haste towards Sandy Hook but the heat was so great that immense numbers perished through fatigue.

In the mean time a French fleet had arrived off the coast of new England. They made an unsuccessful attempt to land upon Rhode Island, and after some skirmishes with Sir Henry Clinton put in at Boston.— The British were successful in an attack upon the . . .

General gates advanced into Carolina with a body of American forces, and encountered Lord Cornwallis with a body of American forces with a detachment of the British near Cambden [Camden]. An action ensued which proved very disastrous to the Americans, although they Americans were much superior in numbers to the British Carolina seemed on the very verge of ruin. And indeed at this time, (the autumn of 1780) the affairs of the Americans in every quarter wore a most gloomy aspect. — Washington, in the neighborhood of new York, had neither provisions nor clothing for his troops, they ran away by companies, and he found it almost impossible to preserve order or discipline. Congress had neither money or credit and on this occasion the Inhabitants of Philadelphia generously gratuitously advanced $300,000 for the relief of the suffering soldiers, and the Ladies of the city also, contributed largely to all sorts of necessaries, This example was followed by other cities.

The distresses of Washington at this period were much aggravated by the discovery of a conspiracy of a most alarming nature, which nearly [remand?] with ruin the American cause.

Benedict Arnold, a native of Connecticut, espoused the American cause with ardour the cause of liberty at an early period, he was a brave and distinguished officers, and had been rapidly promoted, and enjoyed the confidence of his country and of Washington. Arnold was fond of show and parade, he was prodigal, and finding his pay insufficient, entered into some speculations which were not altogether honourable. — He also, levied contributions upon the Inhabitants of some towns, and complaints had been repeatedly made to Congress, of his conduct. Embarrassed with debts which he was unable to discharge he saw no means of extricating himself, but that of changing sides. 

West Point, was then the Gibraltar of the north river, and Arnold at his own particular desire was appointed to the command of this important post. — He there opened a negociation with Sir Henry Clinton, in which he stipulated to deliver West Point into the hands of the British, for which he was to receive a certain sum [for] a certain compensation.  Sir Henry Clinton had entrusted the engagement of this affair to Maj. Andre, a young officer of approved fidelity. The swoop of war Vulture was stationed in North river, and Maj. Andre , from on board of her corresponded with Arnold under a fictitious name. —  At length it was decided  that a personal interview should take place. and Maj Andre landed at night on the shore, without the lines of either army. Where he was met by Arnold — As their business was not finished at day break,, Arnold Andre remained on shore in concealment. — but during the whole of that day. The next night day the boatman refused to take him back to the Vulture because she had changed her station, and he was compelled to return to new York by land.

He disguised himself, was furnished with a passport under a feigned the name of John Anderson. — He passed the American lines undisturbed. When near New York. he was met by three persons of the NY militia, who were scouting between the lines of the two armies.— They seized the bridle of his horse. When instead of producing his pass,, he most inadvertently betrayed himself to them, declaring himself to be a British Officer. and desired that he might not be detained: — The captors, however, seized and searched him, and notwithstanding his offers of ample reward, conducted him to Colonel Jamison the officer on that station. [The?] unhappy fate of Major Andre deserves our pity — he was tried, condemned and executed as a spy.

As soon as Arnold Arnold received intelligence that his plot was discovered, then he fled and went on board the Vulture. — he was appointed to an important post in the British army, and bore arms against his country during until the termination of the war

After then he went to London, where he passed the remainder of his wretched life, shunned by the wise and the good, and an object of contempt for all mankind. — he died in about 1810.

I cannot her omit an anecdote relating to Arnold — Before the termination of the contest, he was one day conversing with a British officer respecting his defection from the American cause — “Pray Sir, says Arnold, what do you suppose punishment do you suppose the Americans would inflict upon me if I should were to be taken by them. He “Cut off your leg that was wounded at Saratoga, replied the officer, and bury it with all the honours of war, but the rest of your body they would hang on a gibbet. —

While Washington and the British were thus stationed — watching each other like hungry lions, a circumstance occurred which deserves to be recorded.

The English Officers were quartered upon the Inhabitants of Philadelphia — Lord Howe had fixed his headquarters in Second Street, directly opposite. One of his Generals adjutants had quartered himself upon taken rooms in the house of a quiet and respectable Quaker family nearly opposite. — The officer was often received his friends at his lodgings but on these occasions nothing unusual was required form the family. — Early in the month of December he informed the mistress of the house that on a certain evening some persons would visit him. and desired her to cause the family to retire early and the house to be perfectly quiet. This unusual request  roused some suspicions, and when the evening arrived, she arranged every thing according to the wishes of the officers. — After the arrival of the friends of the officer, her agitation and suspicions, became so great that she rose form her bed and softly descended to the door of the room and applied her ear to the key hole, hoping to What must have been her astonishment on hearing from hearing plan discussed, and orders read, for surprising the army of Washington at Whitemarsh. — She retired to her chamber, ruminating upon the probably fate of thousands of her countrymen. — When the officers retired for the night he knocked several times at her chamber door, as he had occasion for her services — be she feigned to be sleeping so soundly that she was only awakened with great difficulty. —

The next day she informed her Husband that she must go to Frankfort to purchase provisions — he objected strongly — but she insisted on going herself — assigning some reason that satisfied him. She obtained a pass, by which she got over the British lines. When she came to Frankfort she met Colonel Craig of the American Light Horse with a party of who body of men. He recognized her, and seeing her on foot, enquired whither she was going. — She replied “to see her son an officer in the American army. — but requested him but at And Friend Craig, said she,  I should be glad if thee would alight and walk a little way with me as I wish to confer with thee.”

He readily complied with her request. — ordering his men to keep at a little distance.— After exacting a promise of secrecy from him, as respecting the auth herself— she informed him, what she had overheard. Colonel Craig — hastened immediately to Headquarters to inform Washington — His informant returned to town. . .

At this time about 1500 the south part of North America and a long considerable tract of counties on the western side of South America were inhabited by nations, who had made considerable advances in civilization. In truth, all the Indians had mostly some traces of improvement among them. They were also brave and warlike and the Spaniards found it extremely difficult to make permanent settlements here.

Sebastian Cabot one of the most distinguished men of his age, was employed by both the English and Spaniards, (Charles 5th — and Henry 7 and 8) made many important discoveries upon the coasts of both the Americas. he discovered Florida as early as 149[6?] About 1526 we learn that he was in the service of Charles 5th and he then discovered the coast of Paraguay Jean de Solis, also made some important discoveries. In 1515, after discovering the exploring the coast of Brazil, he appeared in the Rio de la Plata, and took formal possession of all the adjacent country. [an [1827?]  news clipping attached describing the return of the remains of Lieut. William Howard Allen, returned from Matanzas] . . .  and set she set up all night to watch the movements of the British, they marched, silently and cautiously out of the city about midnight, but before the dawning of the day returned, with as much secrecy. A few days, afterwards, the adjutant General called his hostess into his [illegible] room, and locking the door with an air of mystery , asked her if any of her family were up, the night he met certain officers there — One may easily imagine her terror but she replied with great calmness that her family were all in bed at an early hour. —

“I am sure, said he, that you was asleep for I knocked at your door three times.— But Washington received intelligence of our intended attack, and when we arrived at Whitemarsh, we found them lying upon their arms, ready to receive us, and we were obliged to march back again like a parcel of fools!” — 

The name of this heroic woman was Lydia Darrah. her family still resides in Philadelphia. — In all probability her courage and coolness preserved Washington and his army.

Many anecdotes have been preserved, which are recorded by the venerable Major Gardin in his anecdotes of the Revolution.

But we can not pass unnoticed the heroic Emily Geiger, who performed a most important service. While Lord Rendon and general Greene were opposed to each other, and their armies were lying contiguous, General Greene wished to convey some important information to a detachment at some distance, but as the country was full of British soldiers., the undertaking was reckoned exceedingly hazardous. No one seemed willing to encounter the danger — until at length Emily Geiger a young and delicate female woman volunteered to perform the service. — The commanding officer General Greene presented her with a letter containing the to the directed to the officer commanding the detachment. he, also in case of accident communicated made a verbal communicative of this to her of the order contained in the letter.

She courageously mounted her horse, and without [quick?] or protection, proceeded took her away to the American camp. — She was obliged to cross the British lines, but she had scarcely got within them  when she was stopped by a party of British soldiers and compelled to enter their camp. They suspected her of being a spy or a messenger, and took her to an adjutant who shut her up in a tent — while he sent for a number of matrons to examine and search her. — While she was alone, she deliberately tore the letter in pieces and swallowed it —  so that when the females arrived as not a vestige of it remained. When the persons appointed to examine her arrived, they interrogated her, but she confessed nothing that could implicate herself — professing to be a harmless person— engaged in her own lawful concerns and much vexed to be unnecessarily detained — They then examined her dress — but no written documents appeared and Emily was suffered to proceed in her journey. — She arrived safely at the place of destination — made a verbal communication of to the American officer — Again mounted and regained her friends in safety. — Emily might The name of Emily Geiger ought not to be forgotten by Americans. — . . .

At the close of the year 1780 and the commencement of 1781 the distress of the nation seemed to have risen to the highest pitch. — When providentially some prospect of relief appeared. — On the 10th of July of 1780 a French fleet arrived off Rhode Island having on board a force of 6000 men destined for the assistance of the Americas. They were landed at, but they being were soon after blockaded by the British, and nothing was done.

A loan was obtained from France, another from Holland and a regular system of finance was adopted by Robert Morris.— The States of Europe glad of an opportunity of humbling the pride of England, successfully made war upon her — and she was none not only obliged to contend with America but also with France, Spain and Holland.

The campaign of 1781 was principally remarkable one on account of the sanguinary battles that took place in the Carolinas. — All the Carolinas were overrun by the British, and many who had at first espoused the cause of their country deeming the contest  now hopeless, presented petitions to Lord Cornwallis praying to be again received as British subjects. On the other hand a great number of persons, were conspicuous and devoted patriots, and the record of their sufferings and their services cannot be read unmoved. The Ladies of Carolina were in general, devoted friends of the patriot cause — and so much did the English distrust and fear these, that after the capture of Charleston a number of most distinguished ladies were sent as prisoners to Philadelphia. Early in 1781 Lord Cornwallis began to make preparations for carrying the war into Virginia, hoping that Sir Henry Clinton would co-operate with him. He was opposed by General Greene. The two armies met at Guilford Court House about the 15th of March and a battle took place, which was unfortunate for the Americans. In several engagements General Greene was mostly unsuccessful and he finally withdrew beyond the river Salida (in a strong position).

Lord Cornwallis continued his march to Wilmington and about the 20th of may arrived at Petersburg. But the Americans had now taken the alarm and a great number of [leanting?] parties continually harrassed then in their march. At Green Springs in Virginia Lord Cornwallis met with a severe defeat from a body of Americans under General Wayne. And the Marquis La Fayette constantly with a body of forces constantly hovered about harrassed him and intercepted his convoys, and he every day found his situation more perilous and distressing. Sir Henry Clinton in new York was afraid to assist Cornwallis because Washington at White Plains maneuvered with so much finesse that he was utterly at a loss to know, what measures he intended to pursue. At length Washington having concerted with the French — suddenly broke up his camp, and without even communicating his designs to his own officers, marched off through the Jerseys and Pennsylvania. His army proceeded with so much celerity that he was in Virginia ere Sir henry Clinton was aware, and the French fleet had stationed themselves at the entrance to Chespeak Bay, by which means all communication by sea was fairly intercepted. In the mean time Cornwallis had stationed himself at Yorktown — where he fortified his camp. Washington reached Williamsburg of the 14th of September and on the 25th the combined French and American armies arrived. — They [invested?] Yorktown immediately and the British army was completely blocked up.

On the 9th of October the Combined Armies opened their batteries. — their fire was so well directed that they soon demolished some of the Britis works of the enemy, and burned 2 vessels in the harbour. The British made some sallies, but to very little purpose. and the combined armies having finished their works kept up an incessant fire which the British were unable to return. At length Lord Cornwallis sent a flag of found that his army could hold out no longer and he sent a flag of truce to General Washington proposing a cessation of arms. A truce was granted and a ce he finally agreed to capitulate. On the 19th of October  Lord Cornwallis and his army surrendered themselves prisoners of war.

The news of the taking of Cornwallis spread with wonderful rapidity — throughout the union — and gave the was heard by the Americans with joy and exultation. The British now gave up all hopes of conquering the colonies. and the next spring  began to make overtures for peace. —

Commissioners on the part of the Americans, and also on the part of the Crown of Great Britain met at Paris, and ion September 17  the 30th of November 1782 — the preliminary treaty  was signed in which Great Britain acknowledged the independence of the United States. —

Peace was proclaimed in the American army on the 19 of April 1783, exactly eight years after the memorable battle of Lexington. —

The definitive Treaty was signed the next Sept. 1788.

Since the successful termination of our glorious struggle for freedom our country has advanced with rapid strides in the broad road of improvement. On which side soever we turn our eyes, we behold the most abundant splendid monuments of the industry and enterprize of our citizens, and the most abundant evidences of the blessings of a free government. — Immense forests, more extensive than some powerful kingdoms in Europe,, have disappeared as if by the hand of magic; and in their stead have arisen with astonishing celerity, villages and towns; churches and and other public buildings and canals, roads and bridges have been constructed that might vie with any of the old world. A navy has arisen, at once the pride and the boast f our nations. — And the American flag waves in every harbour from the confines of Kamtschatka to the extremity of Cape Horn.

When we [real?] to mind the departed glories of ancient republican Greece; the splendid but evanescent brilliancy of the modern republics of Italy —; or the long and continued prosperity of the republics of Switzerland or Holland; what splendid pictures many not fancy portray thro’ the long vista of ages yet to come of the picture of greatness of America.

Unchecked by the iron arm of despotism the blessings of knowledge will be diffused in every quarter, and the ingenuity  and enterprise of our citizens will cause them to explore with eagerness the mysteries of nature or the secrets of science. — Already in imagination we may behold contemplate a long train. — who will rival or surpass the most venerated sages of ancient or moderns days. — And could we rend aside the veil which hides futurity from us, we should behold discoveries in the arts; and improvements in science at which we might gaze in amazement. If we also suppose that the Indians and moral condition of our nation improve in proportion shall we not present such a spectacle as has never before been seen. — May these splendid visions be realized. — May succeeding years roll on with the full tide of happiness and prosperity. And may our country be a constant and permanent example of the blessings of a free government; religious toleration and the diffusion of knowledge.



Source: Anne Laura Clarke Collection, Historic Northampton, Northampton MA, Courtesy of Granville Ganter.